Cement slurries prepared for oilfield use when mixed on the fly or batch mixed normally will entrain air into the fluid resulting in a froth or foam that can seriously affect the quality of the slurry. The addition of entrained air can change the density of the fluid resulting in volume discrepancies and ultimately a reduction of the strength of the final product. To combat this phenomenon, additives termed “anti-foams have been developed to aid the removal of the air from the slurry.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: AF10-CP– Highly efficient anti-foam additive for cement slurries.
Biocides are a class of chemistry created to kill anerobic or aerobic bacteria. The bacteria include sulfate reducing, iron reducing or acid producing types. The primary categories of biocides include non-oxidizing biocides such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds among others and Oxidizing biocides such as chlorine dioxide or bleach (again, among others). Both categories have their advantages and drawbacks. Each scenario needs to be examined carefully prior to determining which biocide is most applicable. This category of chemistry is heavily regulated in Canada and only a certain number of companies are authorized to sell biocides in Canada as well as at the provincial level.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: BK10-GL – Highly concentrated and efficient glutaraldehyde based biocide.
Clays are high surface area minerals that are usually deposited within the pore spaces of the reservoir rock. These clay minerals appear in may different forms and all can lead to varying types of formation damage. Kaolinite, illite, smectite and chlorite clays are the 4 primary clay types in sandstone formations. It is rare in Canada that carbonate formations contain clays in the porosity, but carbonates can have clays bound in the rock fabric that can be released when the carbonate is dissolved by acid.
Kaolinite clays form platelet type structures that when disturbed can migrate and plug pore throats near the wellbore where they can accumulate. Illite clays are very fine, hair like structures that also can be dislodged and flow towards the wellbore. Smectite, or montmorillonite, clay can absorb water molecules into their structure and cause swelling which will cause blockages in the pore throat. Chlorite is another migrating type clay with the main difference in that iron is a large part of its structure and it is partially soluble in HCl, therefore creating an opportunity for iron induced formation damage.
For many years, simple potassium chloride solutions were used to protect clays. As the potassium ion is positive, the potassium ion can enter into the structure of the negatively charged clay species and prevent water from affecting the clay.
To make logistics easier, potassium chloride substitutes were developed of which choline chloride is the most popular. Multiple varieties of polymers and chemicals have also been developed to offer long term stabilization of clays as well.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: CC10-KS – Polymer based clay stabilizer
Primarily used in acidizing, corrosion inhibitors reduce the corrosive effects of acids but are also used in certain industries to reduce the corrosive effects of high chloride content water.
There are two primary types of corrosion inhibitors, filming and ion exchange. Filming inhibitors are more effective to a higher temperature while ion exchange types are better for compatibility with crude oils.
The typical function of a diverter material is to divert injected fluids from one area of a wellbore to another area of the wellbore. This is done to reduce the overall cost of the operation by simplifying the well intervention. There are many methods of accomplishing this goal but in general, the diverter must have the following characteristics: it must be easily removed so as to not cause any flow restrictions after the treatment; it must not adversely react with the formation fluids; and it must economical to use.
For example, rock salt is the most common diverter used in acid treatments in water disposal wells as the fluid that the salt will see the most is disposal water. The disposal water will dissolve the rock salt over time and remove the damaging effects of the rock salt. Where this sometimes fails, is the scenario where the disposal water is saturated with salt already. This would necessitate using a fresh water flush to remove the salt diverter prior to putting the well back on disposal.
There are several other types of diverting material and all have their inherent usefulness. Typically, the diversion is recommended on a case by case basis.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: Poly Loc II – Water Soluble Diverter for Fracture and Acid Stimulation Treatments. Poly Loc III – Water Soluble Lost Circulation Material for Drilling or Cementing applications.
Drag reducers are a separate type of friction reducer. Typical friction reducers are water soluble and designed to keep fluid in laminar flow which will reduce the amount of power required to move a Newtonian type fluid (such as water). Drag reducers are oil soluble and specifically designed for transporting crude oil down a pipeline. The drag reducer changes the way crude oil flows and similar to a friction reducer reduces the power to move the crude oil resulting in either a larger throughput or reduced pumping power or both.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: DR10-PL – Efficient drag reducer for crude oil
H2S scavengers convert highly toxic H2S to water or oil soluble forms of organic molecules that are non-toxic. There are a variety of chemistry available to do this and these chemicals are designed for different amounts of H2S that need to be removed.
Large refineries and gas processing plants will use a re-generative type of H2S scavenger that can be re-used by removing the precipitated Sulphur from the treating unit whereas small processing plants and batch type applications will use a single use, non-regenerative type of scavenger. These non-regenerative scavengers can be designed for use in oil or water.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: SCV10-HSC – Highly efficient H2S Scavenger Concentrate SCV11-HSS – Diluted non-winterized H2S Scavenger SCV12-HSW – Diluted winterized H2S Scavenger
All machinery uses some type of lubricant. Just as a car engine needs oil to lubricate its moving parts other types of metal on metal contact also require lubrication. The main difference in the types of lubrication is the force being applied to the two surfaces that require lubrication.
There are lubricants that place a thin barrier on the metal to provide protection for high-pressure contact of surfaces such as that engine or chemicals that enhance the ability of one surface sliding on another such as coil tubing in casing.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: FR30-MTL – Effectively reduces coefficient of friction between metals
Alternative Mineral Dissolution Fluids – Alternative Mineral Dissolution fluids include all forms of chemistry that compete with the traditional acid blends. These traditional acid blends include Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The two major concerns with both of these acids is the safety of handling the product and the uncontrolled reaction rate with the minerals they were designed to remove. Alternative fluids have been developed to minimize the effects of these two major problems.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Alternative Fluids
HCl Alternative fluids target minerals that are soluble in HCl. These can include the carbonate, oxide or sulfide-based minerals. The alternative fluids can include urea hydrochloride, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) or high-powered chelating agents all of which have used for many years. Each of these products exhibit unique properties which can be very useful in a variety of applications but they also can be expensive. An evaluation of the treatment parameters required should be completed with all of the fluids specific properties in mind to determine the most cost-effective solution.
Mutual solvents are a class of chemistry designed to enhance the water wetting ability of mineral dissolving fluids to attack the mineral. Mutual solvents do not remove whole hydrocarbon deposits (such as wax or asphaltenes) physically but rather enhance the stimulation fluids ability to dissolve the substrate to release the hydrocarbon deposit.
Oxygen, while providing for life on earth, can be a very corrosive gas if it exists in a fluid system or in storage vessels. Typically, oxygen needs to be removed or scavenged to near parts per billion levels and can be done very effectively using chemical or mechanical means.
Hydrocarbon solvents are designed to remove whole precipitated organic deposits of wax and asphaltenes. These deposits are found in most crude oil producing wells and in many injection well systems. Wax deposits are typically caused by the physical drop in temperature as the fluid is produced from a well. This phenomenon can be easily tested in a laboratory to determine when this may occur in a producing system.
Asphaltenes are a large polar molecule that is very sensitive and can be precipitated by a change in pH, the presence of iron molecules, contact by CO2 or even contact crude oil from a different formation.
When wax or asphaltenes deposit themselves on the rock, the rock face can change from water wet to oil wet and impede production.
To change this back, these deposits need to be removed and only a hydrocarbon solvent can accomplish this. Mutual solvents will not do this on their own.
In this regard, xylene has been used extensively to remove hydrocarbon build up. Generally, enhancers are added to xylene to make it more effective and more water wetting. There are standalone solvents that are very good at this as well, these usually contain a mixture of aromatics and aliphatic components.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: SOL10-WA – Efficient blend of aromatic/aliphatic components to remove wax and asphaltene deposits
“Surfactants are surface active agents that can include a multitude of chemical types designed to accomplish a specific goal. This goal can include foaming a fluid, preventing an emulsion, dispersing a fluid within another fluid or altering the wetting ability of a fluid. Surfactants can also encourage a mineral to hold onto a particular fluid (or gas) or help the fluid (or gas) be released from a particular mineral. The vast number of jobs that surfactants can perform necessitate focusing on the duty that the surfactant is to accomplish to determine the proper surfactant to use.???
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available:
SRF10-IFT – Non-ionic, water dispersible,nano-fluid designed to aid in the recovery of water and oil after stimulation. SRF20-NE – A highly efficient non-emulsifier for workovers, fracturing and acidizing applications.
Water Friction Reducers
Water Friction Reducers
Friction reducers are designed to keep a fluid in laminar flow which will reduce the amount of power required to move a Newtonian type fluid (such as water). These friction reducers are generally a specific type of chemistry based on PolyAcrylaMides (PAMs).
These are primarily used in high rate slick water fracturing to both increase the rate at which the service company can pump the fluid and also reduce the amount of horsepower it takes to pump that fluid.
This class of chemicals can be made to reduce the friction of fresh to very high salinity formation water and some even can increase the viscosity (by adding more of the PAM) of the friction reduced water so that the fluid can carry more sand or can open a wider fracture.
Kaliber Chemicals has the following product(s) available: FR10-HS – High Salt Tolerant Friction Reducer FR11-CFR – Cationic Friction Reducer FR20-HV – High Viscosity Friction Reducer FR21-HV– Salt Tolerant High Viscosity Friction Reducer.
Prevention of wax gelling and/or depositing on pipe walls or in the formation can be accomplished using heat or chemicals. The chemicals that affect the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) are wax inhibitors or crystal modifiers. Those that affect the pour point temperature are PPD’s or flow improvers.